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Media Literacy

John Kennedy
______ _____:
1917-1963
Massachusetts
Barely won the election
Had to focus on gaining credibility.

John Kennedy
_____ _____:
From Massachusetts. So he spoke with a New England accent.
Irish decent.
First Roman Catholic elected president. Family Bible used at inauguration.
From political family. Democrat.
Harvard graduate.
Navy officer in WWII.
Youngest man voted into presidency. 43 years old.

John Kennedy
Issues ____ ____ in his presidency:
Economic expansion
Space exploration
Civil rights- America faces a “moral crisis”
Foreign relation. Human right. Wanted America to help other countries through organizations such as the Peace Corp.
Nuclear war threat. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty softened the feelings of the Cold War
Fear of Communism. Threat given to US by Cuba and Russia.

Rhetoric
Main Components of _____:
What you say + How you say it + Your credibility = Rhetorical Argument

Logos
Appeals to audience by using logic and reason

Pathos
Appeals to audience by targeting others’ emotions

Ethos
Appeals to the audience using the reputation of the speaker/author.

Metaphor
Comparison between two unlike objects.
One thing is the other.
A rhetorical device
“The TORCH has been passed to a new generation of Americans.”

Alliteration
Repetition of like sounds at the beginning of words.
A rhetorical device
“Let the word go forth from this time and place, to FRIEND AND FOE alike”
“…that both sides begin anew for peace, before the DARK POWERS OF DESTRUCTION unleashed by science engulf all humanity…”

Allusion
Reference to something assumed to be known
A rhetorical device
EX: Bible, Greek and Roman mythology
“… a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, “rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation”… (Kennedy doesn’t tell the audience where this quote is from, he’s assuming they already know)
-Romans 12:12 (King James Version of the Christian Bible)

Parallelism
Framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity.
Organization, emphasis, rhythm.
Rhetorical device
“If a free society CANNOT HELP THE MANY WHO ARE POOR, IT CANNOT SAVE THE FEW WHO ARE RICH.”
-John F. Kennedy

Antithesis
Two contrasting ideas presented together.
Ideas balanced at the word, clause, or paragraph level.
Rhetorical device
“…[Ask not what your country can do for you-ask what you can do for your country.”
-John F. Kennedy

Chiasmus
Repetition:
Rhetorical device
A type of it is: ______ (a type of structure)- Repetition in opposite order; the order in the second half of an expression reverses the order of the first half of the expression
“Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.”
-John F. Kennedy

Anaphora
A type of repetition structure:
_______:
Repetition of beginnings.
“All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet.”
-John F. Kennedy

D
Which of the following is NOT a rhetorical device a speaker could use in their speech?
a) parallelism
b) anaphora
c) metaphor
d) theme

Tone
Setting the ____:
The emotion that pervades a work or part of a work; the spirit or character that is a work’s emotional essence.

Tone
Setting the ____:
The author may use words such as these:
Serious, respectful, somber, scholarly, diplomatic, impassioned, indifferent, optimistic, nostalgic, inspirational, cautionary, assertive, joyous, demeaning, compassionate.

Inauguration
Words describing John F. Kennedy’s ______ address/speech:
Serious
Impassioned
Cautionary
Respectful
Assertive
Optimistic
Diplomatic
Inspirational
Compassionate

Tone
____ is much more easier to hear than read.
(tone/mood)

Audience
Kennedy’s ____ was the senate and average American citizens, political leaders, as well as the entire world.

Tone Clarity Organization.
The Delivery of a Speech
____ (in a speech) is all about hearing ethos and pathos.
_____. Kennedy used simple word choice because he knew the audience needed to understand what he was saying. He used repetition, which is a strong tool when used correctly. He directly addresses the people- “You”
_____. Thematic. Was relevant and on topic (logos- logic and reasons.) Speech went from historical to present (past, present, and future. It also went by issue by issue.

Television
Nixon vs. Kennedy
First presidential debate broadcasted on _____ (a new medium at the time) (September 26, 1960; 66 million people)
Made the candidates be perceived differently. After the date than before it.

Nixon Kennedy
Presidents after the first (ever) broadcasted on TV debate:
_____: Uncomfortable, old pale. He age and appearance were working for him BEFORE the debate.
_____: At ease, energized, healthy. BEFORE his age was hurting him.

Alliteration
Break the bond of mass misery is an example the the rhetorical device ______.

B
Which statement about tone is not true?
A. Tone can be described using words like serious, joyous, or somber.
B. Tone is much is easier to read than to hear.
C. A speaker chooses a tone that will fit the audience.
D. Tone is the emotion that pervades a work or part of a work.

A
Kennedy’s appeal to what is an American’s patriotic duty to fight communism is an example of which type of rhetorical argument?
A. pathos
B. ethos
C. nithos
D. logos

A
Which statement is false?
a)Kennedy’s speech was well received because it was broadcast on television.
b) Kennedy’s speech reflects a balance of ethos, logos, and pathos.
c) Kennedy’s speech is considered well crafted and memorable.
d) Kennedy’s speech directly addressed the important issues of his day.

C
Which passage from Kennedy’s inaugural address is an example of an allusion?
a) “To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge—to convert our good words into good deeds—in a new alliance for progress . . . .”
b) “But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers.”
c) ” . . . a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, ‘rejoicing in hope; patient in tribulation’ . . .”
d) “If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.”

C
Which word identifies the tone of Kennedy’s inaugural speech best?
a) arrogant
b) nostalgic
c) inspiring
d) joyous

A
Which passage from Kennedy’s inaugural address is a metaphor?
a) “And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house.”
b) “To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge—to convert our good words into good deeds . . . .”
c) “For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed.”
d) “Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.”

D
What was the overall purpose of John F. Kennedy’s inaugural speech?
a) to warn Russia that the US will go to war if they continue to show aggression
b) to tell the people of South America that the US will support their right to democracy
c) to inform the nation and the world that the US is ready for war if necessary
d) to address the nation upon being sworn in as President of the United States

D
Which appeal did Kennedy not use to evoke pathos in his audience during his inaugural address?
a) an appeal to uphold freedom and democracy
b) an appeal to patriotic duty
c) an appeal to moral duty to help those in need
d) an appeal to accept Kennedy as a trustworthy president

A
Which phrase defines “chiasmus” best?
a) the use of repetition in opposite order with the focus on the structure of the phrasing
b) the use of repetition at the beginning of sentences or phrases
c) a reference to something common that most people should recognize
d) a suggestion that one thing is like another thing when they are actually opposites

A
Which statement is true?
a) Kennedy wanted to give an inspiring speech without being long-winded.
b) Kennedy did not put much preparation into his inaugural address because he was a naturally gifted speaker.
c) Kennedy wanted his speech to be exciting, so he used a lot of humor to excite the audience.
d) Kennedy’s speech was criticized for being too complicated and unorganized for most people to appreciate.

B
Which statement identifies the impact parallelism can have when used in a speech?
a) Parallelism keeps the audience members in a highly emotional state so that the speaker can use their emotions against them.
b) Parallelism keeps information organized, provides emphasis, and oftentimes adds rhythm.
c) Parallelism is used to speak to the audience members with the lowest intelligence and most limited education.
d) Parallelism is used when speakers want to sound scholarly and important so that they can build confidence.

B
All of the following added to the clarity of the content in Kennedy’s inaugural address except __________.
a) straightforward and simple word choice
b) the use of pathos
c) repetition of important ideas
d) directly addressing the audience with the use of “you”

B
Which passage from Kennedy’s inaugural address is an example of anaphora?
a) “To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery . . .”
b) “All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet.”
c) “[T]he torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans . . . .”
d) “[T]hose who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.”

C
Tone can be described best as __________.
a) the logic that runs throughout a work or part of a work
b) the things that are referenced in a work or part of a work
c) the emotion that pervades a work or part of a work
d) the rhetorical devices that are used in a work or part of a work

Compare Contrast
____ and ____ Essay:
Explores similarities and differences. Not just one or the other.
Examines interesting relationships. Make it stand out.
Includes relevant examples to support analysis.

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Hi, I am Sara from Studymoose

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